Different Types Of Pipe Fittings

A pipe fitting is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe or tube, adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow. these fittings are used in plumbing to manipulate the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments, within a system of pipes or tubes.

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Types of Pipe Fittings

Buttweld Fittings

A butt weld pipe fitting is made by the process of hot forming that includes bending and forming to shape. The starting material of butt weld fitting is a pipe that is cut to length, heated and moulded into specific shapes by means of dyes. Heat treatment is also done to remove residual stresses and obtain desired mechanical properties.
A buttweld fitting is a weldable pipe fitting that allows for change of direction of flow, to branch off, reduce pipe size or attach auxiliary equipment.
are available as elbows, tees, caps, reduces and outlets. These fittings are the most common type of welded pipe fitting and are specified by nominal pipe size and pipe schedule.
This butt weld pipe fittings then turns out to be a piece of a framework for transporting liquids (oil, gas, steam, chemicals, … ) in a sheltered and proficient way, over short or long separations.
Buttweld Pipe fittings are manufactured by taking market standards into consideration.
Different sorts of butt weld pipe fittings can be strung or attachment welded. It has various types of fittings like buttweld pipe fittings, buttweld tee, buttweld reducer, buttweld cap & buttweld outlet.

Benefits of Butt Weld Pipe Fittings

  • 1. Welded connection offers a more robust connection.
  • 2. Continuous metal structure adds to the strength of the piping system.
  • 3. Buttweld fittings with matching pipe schedules offer seamless flow inside the pipe.
  • 4. Cost-effective compared to their expensive threaded or socket weld counterparts.
  • 5. Buttweld pipe fittings are most commonly available in carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel alloy, aluminium and high yield material. High yield butt weld carbon steel pipe fittings are available.

Socket Weld fittings

A Socket Weld is a pipe attachment detail in which a pipe is inserted into a recessed area of a valve, fitting or flange. Socket Weld fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters.
Weakness resistance is lower than that in butt-welded development because of the utilization of filet welds and sudden fitting geometry, however, it is still superior to that of most mechanical joining techniques.
Different sorts of fittings can be strung or attachment welded. It has various types of fittings like socket weld pipe fittings, socket weld tee, socket weld reducer, socket weld end cap, socket weld union, socket weld coupling, socket weld cross & socket weld outlet.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Socket Weld fittings


  • 1. The pipe need not be bevelled for weld preparation.
  • 2. Temporary tack welding is no needed for alignment because in principle the fitting ensures proper alignment.
  • 3. The weld metal can not penetrate into the bore of the pipe.
  • 4. They can be used in place of threaded fittings, so the risk of leakage is much smaller.
  • 5. Radiography is not practical on the fillet weld; therefore correct fitting and welding are crucial.
  • 6. Construction costs are lower than with butt-welded joints due to the lack of exacting fit-up requirements and elimination of special machining for butt weld end preparation.


  • 1. The welder should ensure an expansion gap of 1/16 inch between the de pipe and the shoulder of the socket.
  • 2. Socket welding is unacceptable for Ultrahigh Hydrostatic Pressure (UHP) in the Food Industry application since they do not permit full penetration and leave overlaps and crevices that are very difficult to clean, creating virtual leaks.
  • 3. In the assembly of the joint before welding, the pipe or tube shall be inserted into the socket to the maximum depth and then withdrawn approximately 1/16″ (1. 6 mm) away from contact between the end of the pipe and the shoulder of the socket.
  • 4. The expansion gap and internal crevices left in socket welded systems promotes corrosion and make them less suitable for corrosive or radioactive applications where solids buildup at the joints may cause operating or maintenance problems. Generally require butt welds in all pipe sizes with complete weld penetration to the inside of the piping.

Threaded Fittings

Threaded joints probably represent the oldest method of joining piping systems. Like Socket Weld fittings, threaded fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters. generally for piping whose nominal diameter is NPS 2 or smaller.
Threaded piping is commonly used in low-cost, noncritical applications such as domestic water, fire protection, and industrial cooling water systems.
Threaded fittings are normally made of cast grey or malleable iron, cast brass or bronze, or forged alloy and carbon steel.
Different sorts of fittings can be strung or attachment welded. It has various types of fittings like threaded pipe fittings, threaded tee, threaded reducer, threaded endcap, threaded union, threaded coupling, threaded cross & threaded outlet.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Threaded Fittings


  • 1. Installation productivity is moderately high, and specialized installation skill requirements are not extensive.
  • 2. Leakage integrity is good for low-pressure, low-temperature installations where vibration is not encountered.


  • 1. Rapid temperature changes may lead to leaks due to differential thermal expansion between the pipe and fittings.
  • 2. Vibration can result in fatigue failures of screwed pipe joints due to the high-stress intensification effects caused by the sharp notches at the base of the threads.
  • 3. In hazardous piping systems threaded connections should be avoided, if possible. Their vulnerability to fatigue damage is significant, especially where exposed threads are subject to corrosion.


In this blog, I have tried to explain detail information about pipe and tube. and also about their different fitting methods.

Source:  China Pipe Fittings Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.pipelinedubai.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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