Comparison and determination of key performance indexes of pipes in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline

In the control project of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline, the Heilongjiang crossing section crosses the borders of China and Russia. The LSAW steel pipes and induction heating bends used are supplied by Russia, However, the negotiations between China and Russia require that the key performance indicators of pipes implement the most stringent requirements of both China and Russia. In order to reasonably determine the pipe performance indexes of Heilongjiang crossing section and ensure pipeline safety, the pipe standards of China and Russia were compared and analyzed, and the key performance indexes of LSAW steel pipes and induction heating bends were analyzed. Compared with the Chinese standard, the Russian standard pays more attention to the low-yield ratio, high fracture ductility and harsh low-temperature toughness of steel pipes, and is closely related to the construction site and is stricter than the Chinese standard. Combining the comparative conclusions and the actual project, it is finally determined that the performance indexes of the pipes of the Heilongjiang crossing section shall comply with the requirements of Russian standards.

The control project of the Sino-Russian East Route natural gas pipeline transit section starts from the Heilongjiang shield-bored Russian shaft 30m to the Russian side, and the end point is the Heihe first station entry site. A line cut-off valve chamber (HC00# pigging valve chamber) is set along the line From 30m outside the shaft of the Chinese shield tunnel to the parallel section of the HC00# pigging valve room between the main pipeline and the standby pipeline, the center of the two pipes is 13m. After exiting the valve room, a single pipe is laid, and finally reaches the first station of Heihe. 30m from the Chinese side of the shield shaft in Heilongjiang, China to the first station of Heihe is a general line section.

In the control project of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline, the Heilongjiang Transit section crosses the borders of China and Russia, connecting the Russian Siberian Pipeline and the Sino-Russian Eastern Route. The Heilongjiang crossing adopts two shield tunnels, the main pipeline and the backup pipeline. The center lines of the two shield tunnels are separated by 50m. The main tunnel and the backup tunnel have the same design plan. The horizontal length is 1139m (shaft center distance). The crossing section uses a pipeline with a diameter of 1420mm. According to the minutes of the Heihe expert negotiation meeting on September 28, 2015, the maximum operating pressure of the project was determined to be 11.76MPa, and the design pressure of the pipeline at the crossing was 12MPa. In terms of pipeline steel grade selection, Russia and China adopt K65 steel grade and X80M steel grade respectively. The production process of Russian steel pipe is the same as that of China, and both adopt thermomechanical rolling. K65 steel grade is equivalent to X80M steel grade, and finally K65/X80M, D1420mm×33.4mm LSAW steel pipes are selected for this project. Considering that the Russian steel pipe production technology of this specification is mature, it has been widely used in the Bovannenkovo-Ukhta (Bowu) long-distance pipeline, and it is consistent with the pipe specifications of the Russian Siberian pipeline (the Russian section of the Sino-Russian pipeline) China does not have any experience in the manufacture of steel pipes of this specification. If small batch trial production is required for procurement in China, mass production can only be carried out after the trial production is qualified; at the same time, other sections of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route in China do not have pipes of this specification, and there are fewer follow-up projects. application. Therefore, the LSAW steel pipes for the Heilongjiang crossing section and the induction heating bends for the shaft location are all supplied by Russia.
The minutes of the meeting minutes of “Gazprom and China National Petroleum Corporation Technical Experts on Certain Technical Issues Concerning the Supply of Natural Gas on the Eastern Route of China and Russia” (Beijing, China, December 24, 2015) concluded that, “Considering China and Russia According to the approval of the relevant authorities for the Heilongjiang crossing section, the preliminary design of the project should be based on the design plan, in accordance with Russian and Chinese standards, and adopt the most stringent requirements, including steel pipes and fittings, welding and weld inspections, and pipeline inspections.” According to the above requirements, although the pipes used in the Heilongjiang crossing section are supplied by Russia, its various indicators should comply with the strictest requirements of both China and Russia. Due to differences in the pipe implementation standards and performance index requirements between China and Russia, a comparative analysis of the performance indexes of steel pipes and induction heating bends is carried out here, and the technical indexes of steel pipes are reasonably determined according to the most stringent requirements.

Overview of China and Russia standards

Steel pipe standard for straight pipe section

At present, the steel pipe standards commonly used in China for long-distance oil and gas pipelines can be divided into international standards, national standards and corporate standards. The most commonly used national standards and international standards are GB/T 9711-2011 “Steel Pipe for Oil and Gas Industry Pipeline Transportation System”, API Spec 5L-2012 “Pipeline Steel Pipe Specification” and ISO 3183-2012 “Pipeline Transportation System for Oil and Gas Industry” Steel Pipe”. API Spec 5L-2012 is issued by the American Petroleum Institute, and ISO 3183-2012 is issued by the International Standardization Committee. These two standards learn from each other and coordinate with each other. GB/T 9711-2011 is equivalent to ISO 3183-2012 standard, and the content requirements are basically the same; GB/T 9711-2011 and API Spec 5L-2012 also have basically the same requirements for steel pipes. Therefore, China’s oil and gas long-distance pipeline standards adopt European and American steel pipe standards. Standard system [1-3].
The above standards take into account the technical requirements and production feasibility of pipeline steel, but the requirements for technical indicators are general requirements. Some indicators are relatively loose in specific engineering projects, and the project is not targeted. Therefore, such standards should be based on specific projects. , Put forward additional requirements based on the actual situation of the project, that is, use the form of “basic standards + supplementary requirements (such as technical specifications)” to specify the performance indicators of steel pipes. For the Heilongjiang crossing section of the control project of the Sino-Russian East Route natural gas pipeline transit section, if the Chinese enterprise standard is implemented, the CDP-S-NGP-PL-006—2014-3 “Technical Specification of Natural Gas Pipeline Engineering Steel Pipe” is commonly used. The standard is a supplement to API Spec 5L-2012, and the technical indicators are more detailed and specific. The Russian standard has its own system, which is quite different from European and American standards. Its steel pipe standards for oil and gas long-distance pipelines include two major categories: national standards and enterprise standards [4-6]. Among them, the commonly used national standard is the Russian Federation National Standard TOCT P52079-2003 “Technical Conditions for Welded Steel Pipes for Oil, Natural Gas and Petroleum Products Transmission Trunk Lines”. This standard has been revised and supplemented many times, and is suitable for diameters of 114-1 420 mm. Straight seam and spiral seam welded pipes for transporting non-corrosive products (natural gas, petroleum and petroleum products), the working pressure of the pipeline is below 9.8MPa, and the applicable minimum ambient temperature is -60 ℃. Compared with API Spec 5L-2012, the versatility and coordination of Russian steel pipe standards are poor. There are many enterprise standards in Russia, and there are different enterprise standards for steel pipes of different tube types, specifications, and purposes. For the Heilongjiang crossing section, the enterprise standard implemented by Russia is TУ 1381-011-47966425-2008 “Technical Conditions for K65 Welded Straight Seam Steel Pipes for Trunk Natural Gas Pipelines with Working Pressure of 11.8MPa and Outer Diameter of 1420mm”. This standard is based on Russian national standards. The above indicators are further refined and proposed, and are suitable for the construction, maintenance and transformation of the main line natural gas pipeline with a working pressure of 11.8MPa, an outer diameter of 1420mm, and a strength class of K65. The operating temperature is not less than -20℃. Compiled in accordance with the technical requirements of Russia’s Bo-Ukraine natural gas pipeline.

Induction heating bend standard

For induction heating pipes, there is no national standard in China. The current industry standard is only SY/T 5257—2012 “Induction Heating bends for Oil and Gas Transportation”. The standard specifies the carbon steel and low-alloy steel seamless steel pipes and welded steel pipes used in the oil and gas pipeline transportation system, the design calculation of the bend made by the induction heating bending process, the raw material parent pipe, the manufacturing process, the performance of the bend, Requirements for testing and inspection, marking, transportation, storage and protection. The corporate standard generally implements CDP-S-OGP-PL-016—2014-3 “Induction Heating Bend Technical Specification for Oil and Gas Pipeline Engineering”. The technical specification covers the industry standard content and is more detailed.
For specific engineering projects, the majority of China’s oil company standards are implemented. Russia recommends the use of СТО Газпром 2-4.1-713-2013 “Technical Requirements for Pipes and Connectors” for induction heating pipe bends. This standard is the corporate standard of Gazprom. It is applicable to carbon steel and low-alloy steel with a nominal diameter not greater than 1400mm (inclusive) for trunk pipelines and process pipelines that transport gases (natural gas) or liquids (oil and petroleum products). For connecting parts (including bends, tees, etc.), the medium temperature is between -60 and 120 ℃, and the working pressure is not higher than 32MPa.

Selected comparison standard

The content of the national standards on steel pipes between China and Russia are common, and the corporate standards of both parties are compiled based on their own national standards, which meet the requirements of the national standards and are more targeted. For the steel pipes used in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the control project of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline, the Chinese enterprise standard CDP-S-NGPPL-006—2014-3 and the Russian enterprise standard ТУ 1381-011-47966425-2008 were selected for comparative analysis. To determine the performance index requirements of the steel pipe.

For induction heating bends, comparative analysis of the Chinese enterprise standard CDP-SOGP-PL-016-2014-3 and the Russian enterprise standard СТО Газпром2-4.1-713-2013 to determine the performance indicators of induction heating bends.

Comparison and determination of key performance indicators of pipes

For high-grade, high-pressure gas pipelines, steel pipe cracking usually occurs in welds or heat-affected zones. Therefore, the weld and heat-affected zone should have sufficient toughness to ensure that cracking does not occur [7-10]. If the steel pipe cracks, long-range ductile crack propagation will occur, and ductile fracture is the main way of fracture. Therefore, the steel pipe must have sufficient toughness to ensure that the crack is quickly arrested within a certain length after cracking [11-13]. For induction heating bends, their structure is special and the force is complicated. During the service stage of the pipeline, it is required to have non-cracking toughness requirements, and the problem of crack arrest is not considered [14-18].
For the steel pipes and induction heating bends used in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the control project of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline, the key performance indicators are tensile properties and fracture toughness.

Steel pipe for straight pipe

Tensile properties

The Chinese enterprise standard CDP-S-NGP-PL-006—2014-3 stipulates that the sampling position of the tensile sample is the transverse direction of the tube body, and the tube body should be tested for yield strength, tensile strength and elongation after fracture. The transverse tensile specimen of the tube shall be a round bar specimen. The tensile test specimen of the welded joint shall be taken perpendicular to the weld, and the weld shall be located in the center of the specimen, and the weld reinforcement shall be removed. Table 1 shows China’s regulations on tensile properties of X80M steel pipe body and welds.

Transverse yield strength of pipe body/MPa Transverse tensile strength of pipe body/MPa Maximum transverse yield ratio of pipe Minimum elongation of pipe body Minimum tensile strength of weld/MPa
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
555 690 625 780 0.93 15.64% 625

The Russian enterprise standard СТО Газпром 2-4.1-713-2013 requires that the tube body tensile sample adopts a transverse sample and a longitudinal sample. The sample is a rectangular sample or a round bar sample. The tensile test specimen of the welded joint shall be taken perpendicular to the weld, and the weld shall be located in the center of the specimen, and the weld reinforcement shall be removed. Table 2 shows the Russian regulations on the tensile properties of the K65 steel pipe body and welds.
Table 2 Russia’s requirements for the tensile properties of K65 steel pipe body and welds

Transverse yield strength of pipe body/MPa Transverse tensile strength of pipe body/MPa Maximum transverse yield ratio of pipe Minimum elongation of pipe body Minimum tensile strength of weld/MPa
Horizontal minimum Maximum horizontal Longitudinal minimum Horizontal minimum Maximum horizontal Longitudinal minimum
555 665 50 640 760 610 0.92 18% 640

It can be seen from Table 1 and Table 2 that the lower limit of the transverse yield strength of the pipe specified by the Russian standard is the same as that of China, but its tensile strength requirements are higher. Each strength range is narrower than that of China, so the pipe performance can be further restricted. The fluctuation range of the steel pipe improves the performance stability of the steel pipe. The Russian standard stipulates that the yield ratio is 0.92, which is lower than the Chinese standard of 0.93, and the elongation rate is higher than the Chinese standard. The lower the steel pipe yield ratio and the higher the elongation, the better the plasticity and the stronger the fracture resistance [19-20]. At the same time, Russia stipulates that the minimum tensile strength of welded joints is 640MPa, which is higher than the 625MPa required by China. It can be seen that the Russian standard emphasizes a lower yield ratio and pays attention to the plastic deformation ability of the steel pipe after yielding deformation. In addition, Russia also has a minimum limit on the longitudinal tensile performance of steel pipes, which reflects the importance of the Russian standard on steel pipe deformability [21]. According to the principle of “who strictly implements it”, the tensile properties of steel pipe bodies and welds for Heilongjiang crossing sections should be implemented in accordance with Russian regulations.

Resilience index

For Charpy impact test and drop weight tear test (DWTT) sampling, China requires transverse samples. According to China’s requirements for the toughness of X80M steel pipes used in the Heilongjiang crossing section (Table 3), taking into account the temperature of the pipeline transportation medium and the pipeline laying method, the design temperature is -5°C; since the impact test temperature cannot be higher than the design temperature, the test temperature is- 10℃; The minimum requirement for the average value of crack arrest toughness is 180J, and the minimum single value of 3 samples (10mm×10mm×55mm samples) is 140J. For the non-cracking toughness index of the pipe body weld, China has followed the index requirements of the Second West-East Gas Pipeline, with a certain safety margin. For the DWTT test, the test temperature is equal to the design temperature, ie -5°C, and the average shear area is not less than 85%.
Table 3 China’s requirements for toughness index of X80M steel pipe

Test location Test temperature/ Charpy impact energy/J Shear area of sample for DWTT test
Charpy shock DWTT Average of 3 samples Single sample minimum Average of 2 samples Single sample minimum
Pipe body -10 -5 180 140 85% 70%
Weld -10 80 60

For the Charpy impact test and DWTT test sampling, Russia also requires transverse samples (Table 4). ТУ 1381-011-47966425-2008 “Technical conditions for K65 welded straight seam steel pipes for trunk natural gas pipelines with a working pressure of 11.8MPa and an outer diameter of 1420mm” was compiled by the Russian Izhersk Pipe Factory. K65 pipeline engineering experience. The Bo-Wu long-distance pipeline project has a pipe diameter of 1420mm, steel grade K65, a design temperature of -20℃, and an average crack arrest toughness of 200J. The gas blasting test was carried out at this temperature, and it was found that the impact energy value of the crack extension pipe and the crack arrest pipe was different Not much [22]; but when tested at -40°C, the crack extension tube showed obvious fracture separation, and the crack arrest tube’s toughness index decreased very little. In order to effectively identify the expansion pipe with fracture separation phenomenon, Russia stipulated the impact test temperature as -40 ℃ in the engineering technical index. The ТУ 1381-011-47966425-2008 standard follows the technical indicators of the project. For pipe body welds, the minimum average value of the sample at -40℃ is 56J and the minimum single value is 42J. This indicator can meet the requirements of no cracking of the weld. . At the same time, the DWTT test temperature is equal to the design temperature, namely -20°C, and the average shear area of the sample is not less than 85%.
Table 4 Russian requirements for toughness index of K65 steel pipe

Test location Test temperature/ Charpy impact energy/J Shear area of sample for DWTT test
Charpy shock DWTT Average of 3 samples Single sample minimum Average of 2 samples Single sample minimum
Pipe body -40 -20 200 150 85% 70%
Weld -40 56 42

The comparison shows that China and Russia have the same sampling requirements for the Charpy impact test and the DWTT test, and the same requirements for the shear area of the DWTT sample; however, the test temperature in Russia is lower and the requirements for low temperature toughness are more stringent. At the same time, the Russian-specified Charpy impact test temperature is lower than the Chinese test temperature, and the pipe body crack arrest toughness index is also higher than the Chinese index requirement. For pipe body welds, considering the non-cracking toughness requirements, China requires that the average impact toughness of pipe body welds be at least 80J. Although the index is higher than the 56J required by Russia, China has continued to use previous engineering experience and the test temperature is high; Russia Although its index is low, its test temperature is low, and the test has verified that it can meet the requirements of non-cracking toughness. The Russian steel pipe manufacturer has undergone technological transformation and equipment upgrades, and the current production process has been quite mature[23], and there are also application cases in engineering. Considering that the performance indicators of the pipe body adopt the Russian requirements, in order to ensure uniformity, the Russian butt weld indicators are used. Therefore, the toughness index of steel pipes used in the crossing section of Heilongjiang shall be implemented in accordance with Russian regulations.

Induction heating bend

Tensile performance

According to the requirements of Chinese standards, the transverse and longitudinal sampling positions of the induction heating bend tensile test and the transition zone are obtained (Figure 1). The tensile test results of the pipe body and the welded joints of the bent section of the bend pipe, the pipe body and the welded joint of the straight pipe section, and the transition zone of the straight pipe section and the curved section shall meet the requirements of Table 5.
20210122025858 87383 - Comparison and determination of key performance indexes of pipes in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of sampling location for induction heating bend tensile test required by Chinese standards
Table 5 The requirements of Chinese standards on the tensile properties of induction heating bends

Yield strength of pipe body/MPa Minimum tensile strength/MPa Maximum yield ratio of pipe Minimum elongation of pipe body
Minimum Maximum  Pipe body Welded joint
555 705 625 625 0.94 15.64%

According to the requirements of the Russian enterprise standard СТО Газпром 2-4.1-713-2013, the sampling location for the induction heating bend tensile test (Figure 2) is obtained. The samples are all transverse samples, and the tensile test results should meet the requirements of Table 6.
20210122030449 19871 - Comparison and determination of key performance indexes of pipes in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline
Figure 2 Schematic diagram of sampling location for induction heating bend tensile test required by Russian standards
Table 6 The requirements of Russian standards on the tensile performance indexes of induction heating bends

Minimum transverse yield strength of pipe body/MPa Transverse tensile strength of pipe body/MPa Maximum transverse yield ratio of pipe body Minimum transverse elongation of pipe body Transverse uniform elongation of tube Minimum reduction of cross section of pipe body Minimum tensile strength of welded joint / MPa
Minimum Maximum
555 640 760 0.93 18% 6.00% 60% 640

The comparison shows that China requires 3 more sampling locations for tensile properties than Russia: the outer arc side of the starting transition zone, the outer arc side of the final transition zone, and the neutral zone (non-weld side) where the wall thickness of the bending section is basically unchanged. When the curved section local quenching + tempering process is used in the simmering process of the bend, there is a heating transition zone between it and the straight pipe section at the beginning and the end of the heating. This area is the local quenching + tempering process. Therefore, since the West-East Gas Pipeline Project began [14], the Chinese standard has increased the sampling and performance test requirements of the transition zone. However, the induction heating bend used in the Heilongjiang crossing section adopts the overall heating process, and there is no heating transition zone, so sampling in the transition zone is of little significance. At the same time, the neutral zone (non-welded seam side) whose wall thickness is basically constant is affected by the overall heating, and its performance is basically the same as that of the straight pipe section, and repeated sampling is not required.
In terms of performance indicators, Russia has increased the uniform elongation and reduction of area indicators, but they are not used as a basis for judging rejection, only data can be provided. Other indicators are similar between China and Russia, but Russia is relatively strict and pays more attention to the low yield ratio and high fracture ductility of the bend. Therefore, the tensile performance indexes of induction heating bends for Heilongjiang crossing section should be implemented in accordance with Russian regulations.

Toughness index

The Charpy impact test sampling location for induction heating bends required by China is the same as the tensile test (Figure 1). At the test temperature of -10 ℃, the Charpy impact toughness test results of the pipe body and weld joint 10 mm × 10 mm × 55 mm specimens should meet the requirements of Table 7.
The Russian enterprise standard СТО Газпром 2-4.1-713-2013 requires that the Charpy impact test sampling position of induction heating bends is consistent with the tensile performance test sampling position (Figure 2), and the toughness index should meet the requirements of Table 8.
Table 7 The requirements of Chinese standards for the toughness index of induction heating bends

Test location Test temperature/ Charpy impact specimen fracture shear area Charpy impact energy/J
Single sample minimum Average of 3 samples Single sample minimum Average of 3 samples
Bend body -10 Provide data for reference Provide data for reference 60 90
Weld -10 Provide data for reference Provide data for reference 50 75

Table 8 The requirements of Russian standards for the toughness index of induction heating bends

Test location Test temperature/ Charpy impact energy/J
Average of 3 samples Single sample minimum
Bend body -40 56 42
Weld -40 56 42

Combined with the analysis of the sampling location of the tensile performance of the induction heating bend, the requirements of the Russian standard can be implemented for the impact toughness sampling to avoid repeated sampling; for the non-cracking toughness index requirements, Russia has more stringent requirements on the test temperature and low temperature toughness. The test temperature Consider the environmental conditions of the construction site. Taking into account the differences in test temperature and engineering application experience between China and Russia, the Russian standards are relatively stricter, and it is recommended to adopt the non-cracking toughness index requirements specified by Russia. Therefore, the toughness index of the bend pipe used in the Heilongjiang crossing section should be implemented in accordance with Russian regulations.

Conclusion

By comparing the tensile properties and fracture toughness indicators of Chinese and Russian pipes, it is found that Russia has matured technical indicators for K65, 1420mm diameter steel pipes and induction heating bends based on domestic engineering experience. Its domestic steel pipe factories have explored a complete set of production processes and Processes and formed corresponding corporate standards. Based on the design and construction experience of the second and third lines of the West-East Gas Pipeline, China formulated the X80M pipeline standard, and carried out corresponding trial production and appraisal work for large-diameter steel pipes with a diameter of 1422mm, which verified the rationality of the relevant technical indicators, and the steel pipe manufacturers basically Master the production technology of large-diameter and high-grade steel pipes. Compared with the Chinese standard, the Russian standard pays more attention to the low yield ratio, high fracture ductility and low-temperature toughness of steel pipes, and is closely related to the construction site, which is stricter than the Chinese standard. Comprehensively considering the above factors and combining the results of the comparison of technical indicators between China and Russia, it is determined that the Heilongjiang crossing section of the control project of the Sino-Russian East Route Natural Gas Pipeline shall implement the corresponding Russian standards, and the key performance indicators shall be implemented in accordance with Russian regulations.
Author: JIANG Qingmei, ZHANG Xiaoqiang, ZHONG Guixiang, ZHANG Zhenyong

Source: Network Arrangement – China Natural Gas Pipeline Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.pipelinedubai.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@pipelinedubai.com

Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

References:

  • [1] XIE Y,LI J K,LI Y L,ZHANG H B,YU G M,CHANG Y G. Contrastive analysis between standard of steel pipe used for petroleum and nature gas transmission in Russia and common standard in China[J]. Weld Pipe and Tube,2008,31(1):88-92.
  • [2] LIU X H,WANG L H,WANG S X,HUANG Y. Pipeline wall thickness design differences in China and abroad[J]. Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation,2015,34(6):641-645.
  • [3] YAN F,OUYANG X,WANG P Y,DIAO Y,NIE C F,WANG Y B,et al. Strength design principles for main gas pipelines[J]. Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation,2016,35(10):1112-1115,1121.
  • [4] HAN P Z. Brief introduction of standardization in Russia[J]. Metallurgical Standardization & Quality,2004,42(2):57-62.
  • [5] WAN C H. Discussion on standard and verification for oil and gas transportation welded pipe in Russia[J]. Weld Pipe and Tube,2014,37(3):60-63,67.
  • [6] YANG W W,ZHAO J,JIAO B,WANG Q,BIAN C. Analysis and comparison of the K65 steel grade standards[J]. Weld Pipe and Tube,2013,36(7):67-71.
  • [7] CHEN F L,SHUAI J,ZHU B L. Studies on crack arrest criterion of high-grade gas transmission pipeline steel[J]. Pressure Vessel Technology,2010,27(8):1-5,12.
  • [8] CHEN F L,SHUAI J. Arrest structure and ductile determine methods of ductile fracture for gas transportation pipeline[J]. Pressure Vessel Technology,2006,23(7):39-43.
  • [9] ZHANG Z Y,MENG X Q,SUN X J,ZHOU Y W,ZHANG J Y. Toughness index of low-temperature pipe of high steel grade used for the process pipelines at the station of China-Russia eastern natural gas pipeline[J]. Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation,2018,37(4):435-442.
  • [10] WANG B X,LIU X H,WANG G D. Correlation of microstructures and low temperature toughness in low carbon Mn-Mo-Nb pipeline steel[J]. Materials Science and Technology,2013,29(12):1522-1528.
  • [11] GAO H L. The design and prediction of line pipe toughness[J]. Weld Pipe and Tube,2010,33(12):5-12.
  • [12] ZHAO X W,CHI Q,ZHANG W W,YANG F P,XU C J. Fracture toughness indicators of OD 1 422 mm X80 welded steel pipe[J]. Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation,2017,36(1):37-43.
  • [13] ZHAO X W,LUO J H,ZHANG G L,JI L K,LI Y,WU H,et al. Key performance indicators of welded pipe for natural gas pipeline with design factor of 0.8[J]. Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation,2013,32(4):355-359.
  • [14] LIU W,LI G X,FENG Y R. Exploration of technical conditions for induction heating bent pipes[J]. Technology Supervision in Petroleum Industry,2002,18(12):6-8.
  • [15] LIU Y L,LI P Q. Study on material selection of high strength induction bend for West-East Pipeline Project[J]. Petroleum Engineering Construction,2005,31(2):52-55.
  • [16] WANG X. The technology status of fracture propagation and crack arrest of pipelines[J]. Contemporary Chemical Industry,2016,45(2):332-335.
  • [17] ZHANG H,ZHANG H,ZHAO X W,GONG S T,LI N. Experimental study on drop weight tear test thickness effect of pipeline steel[J]. Pressure Vessel Technology,2016,33(11):14-19.
  • [18] SUN H. Introduction of drop-weight tear tests on line pipe recommended practice API RP 5 L3-2014[J]. Petroleum Tubular Goods & Instruments,2016(1):76-79.
  • [19] JI L K,HUO C Y,LI H. Fracture control for high pressure natural gas pipeline with long distance in China[J]. Petroleum Tubular Goods & Instruments,2016,2(6):1-10.
  • [20] MAKINO H,KUBO T,SHIWAKU T,ENDO S,INOUE T,KAWAGUCHI Y,et al. Prediction for crack propagation and arrest of shear fracture in ultra-high pressure natural gas pipelines[J]. ISIJ International,2001,41(4):381-388.
  • [21] ZHANG W W,LI H,CHI Q,ZHAO X W,HUO C Y,QI L H,et al. Technical specifications of the X80 large OD 1 422 mm line pipes and the corresponding product development[J]. Natural Gas Industry,2016,36(6):84-91.
  • [22] HUO C Y,LI H,ZHANG W W,YANG K,CHI Q,MA Q R. Fracture control technology for the X80 large OD 1 422 mm line pipes[J]. Natural Gas Industry,2016,36(6):78-83.
  • [23] LIN L H. Technical modification to Russian large diameter steel pipe manufacturer equipment for oil and gas transportation[J]. Weld Pipe and Tube,2011,34(8):69-71.
Summary
comparison and determination of key performance indexes of pipes in the heilongjiang crossing section of the sino russian eastern route natural gas pipeline - Comparison and determination of key performance indexes of pipes in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline
Article Name
Comparison and determination of key performance indexes of pipes in the Heilongjiang crossing section of the Sino-Russian Eastern Route Natural Gas Pipeline
Description
Compared with the Chinese standard, the Russian standard pays more attention to the low-yield ratio, high fracture ductility and harsh low-temperature toughness of steel pipes, and is closely related to the construction site and is stricter than the Chinese standard.
Author
Publisher Name
www.pipelinedubai.com
Publisher Logo

Related News

  • * 暂无相关文章
العربيةБългарски简体中文繁體中文DanskNederlandsEnglishFrançaisDeutschBahasa IndonesiaItaliano日本語한국어LatinPortuguêsРусскийEspañolதமிழ்ไทยTürkçe