Application status of titanium alloy pipes in the development of high sulfur natural gas
Titanium alloy is widely used in various fields such as aviation, aerospace, shipbuilding, chemical industry, medical treatment, marine engineering, petroleum and petrochemical industry because of its excellent properties such as high strength, low density, high compression, high extrusion resistance, acid corrosion resistance and hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion resistance. Based on the investigation of relevant literature at home and abroad, this paper first analyzes the harsh requirements of high sulfur natural gas exploration and development on metal pipes such as drilling tools, tubing, casing, downhole tools, gas gathering pipe network and natural gas treatment equipment, summarizes the application status of titanium alloy pipes in this field, and focuses on the application of titanium alloy tubing, casing, drill pipe, natural gas transmission and treatment equipment. Finally, from the perspective of drilling cycle The application prospect of titanium alloy in the exploration and development of high sulfur natural gas is prospected from the aspects of production safety and cost saving.Table of Contents hideTitanium alloy material propertiesFeasibility analysis of titanium alloy pipe applicationsTitanium alloy tubing application statusProspects for titanium tubing applications
Air pollution, characterized by PM2.5 pollutants, is becoming more and more severe due to urbanization and industrialization . Coal-to-gas conversion, mainly for industrial fuels, transportation, distributed energy, peaking power generation and high-end natural gas chemical raw materials , plays an important role in the third energy revolution in China in the 21st century .
Gas reservoirs dominated by hydrocarbon gas fields in China account for 98%, CO2 gas reservoirs account for 2%, and the H2S gas reservoir found in Zhao Lanzhuang has a H2S volume fraction of 92% ; carbonate gas, which accounts for 67.9% of the reserves, has a high H2S content , for example, 70% of gas wells in the Southwest oil and gas field contain H2S and CO2 . The metal tubing used in the drilling, cementing, completion, extraction, gathering and disposal [7-12] of H2S-containing gas field exploration and development is based on NACE’s NACE MR0715 standard, and nickel-based alloy well tubing (e.g., G3 alloy tubing) and SM2550 nickel-based alloy tubing are widely used [13-14], but nickel-based alloy tubing processing and preparation processes are complicated, expensive, and the surface is easily damage, and the scarcity of nickel resources in China, relying on nickel-based alloy corrosion-resistant tubing is not conducive to the strategic development of oil and gas, and drilling tool breakage, oil and gas pipeline corrosion perforations still occur. Wang Bing et al  coated 0.12~0.20mm thick FRP or polyethylene, PVC lining in the inner wall of the pipeline to prevent corrosion, but the wear and corrosion is poor; Fu Yarong  proposed that the interlayer p, n type 2 doped graphene, coated into a film “iterative” on the metal surface to form 7ML, between the metal and graphene p-n junction The surface potential can be changed to form an “isolation layer” that prevents the passage of corrosion ions and prevents the corrosion of H2S, but there is still a long way to go before industrial application. Titanium and titanium alloys, known as the “space” metal and “marine” metal, have been widely used in aviation, aerospace, marine engineering, chemical and medical fields . Titanium and titanium alloys will become indispensable new materials in the exploration and development of high sulfur natural gas.
Titanium alloy material properties
Titanium, a “rare element” accounting for 0.61% abundance in the earth’s crust, ranks 4th after Al, Fe and Mg as structural materials, with reserves more than the sum of Cu, Pb and Zn, and China’s titanium resources account for 28.9% of the world’s total reserves, ranking first in the world . Titanium alloy is an important metal developed in the 1950s, the density of titanium (20 ℃) is 4.506 ~ 4.516g/cm3, about 50% of nickel alloy, lower than commonly used iron and copper.
Excellent corrosion resistance
Titanium alloy corrosion resistance is better than nickel-based alloys 028, 825, 728; 90% yield strength load of the body does not occur under stress corrosion cracking. At room temperature, titanium alloy materials in H2S, CH3COOH and NaCl mixed solution immersed in 96h without any cracking, insensitive to HIC (hydrogen cracking), at 160 ℃, the total pressure of 30MPa, H2S partial pressure of 4MPa, CO2 partial pressure of 4.5MPa and 12 × 104mg / L chloride ion mass concentration conditions almost no corrosion. Titanium alloy salt spray corrosion rate is one ten thousandth of carbon steel, one thousandth of stainless steel.
High specific strength, fatigue resistance
The specific strength of titanium alloy pipe is 1.70 times that of nickel-based G3 alloy pipe, and 1.66 times that of ordinary P110 steel pipe. Titanium alloy fatigue life is more than 10 times that of ordinary steel, its durability / fracture resistance is good, the coefficient of thermal expansion is low, 9.5 × 10-6 / ℃, is ¼ of steel, the melting point is also high, 1650 ℃.
Wide yield strength “window”
Yield strength of 380 ~ 550MPa (55 ~ 80ksi) of titanium alloy can be made into titanium alloy pipeline, yield strength of 760 ~ 965MPa (110 ~ 125ksi) of titanium alloy can be made into oil and gas well tubing and casing, yield strength of 935 ~ 1103MPa (125 ~ 160ksi) of titanium alloy can be used in extremely harsh environments. The modulus of elasticity of titanium alloy is small, about 108GPa (steel is about 201GPa), and it will be used for drill pipe to make inclined azimuth angle change will be smaller, and titanium alloy is non-magnetic, good seismic resistance, and does not affect logging.
Excellent weldability and plasticity
Chemically active titanium alloys are easy to weld after contamination by impurities such as gas causing embrittlement, porosity and cracking of welded joints, but they can be welded by tungsten argon arc welding, plasma arc welding, vacuum electron beam welding and laser welding . Welding thickness 1.27 to 3.18 mm, welding width 0.65 to 11.10 mm of petroleum titanium alloy pipe, heat-affected zone width 0.03 to 4.57 mm, heat-affected zone grain size 0.12 to 0.89 mm.
Status of research on titanium alloy tubes at home and abroad
The α+β type Gr28 titanium alloy tubing produced by RMI in the 1990s meets the high strength and corrosion resistance requirements for the production of high sulfur gas wells, with a tensile strength of 917 MPa and yield strength of 814 MPa , which is equivalent to the P110 steel grade tubing in the API standard. Its hot perforated rolling process produces Gr5, Gr23, Gr29 and Gr28 seamless titanium alloy tubing with outer diameters of 48-610 mm, wall thicknesses up to 26 mm and lengths up to 12 m at low cost, and is successfully used in geothermal salt wells and offshore deepwater drilling . Continuous titanium alloy tubes connected by welding method are 1830~3050m in length, 63.5mm outer diameter and 3.2mm wall thickness . The types and brand numbers of titanium alloy tubes in developed countries are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Types and brand numbers of titanium alloy tubes in developed countries
|Country||Corporate name||Type of titanium alloy pipe||Grade|
|Russia||VSMPO||Cold / hot rolled seamless pipe and welded pipe||BT1-0、NT-7M、OT4、OT40、OT4-1、OT4-1B、BT6|
Japan Steel Corporation
Welded pipe, cold rolled seamless pipe
Hot rolled / extruded pipe, welded pipe
Cold rolled seamless pipe, welded pipe
Cold / hot rolled seamless pipe and welded pipe
|Gr1、Gr2、Gr5、Gr7、medium strong Gr9、high strongGr9、Gr11、Gr12、Gr23、Gr28、Gr29|
China’s aerospace and military industries are the main application areas of titanium alloy tubes and have fully mastered the cold-rolled vacuum annealing process for the manufacture of low-tensile, low-alloyed titanium alloy seamless tubes. The dense row hexagonal structure of titanium alloy material has put forward higher requirements for the existing warm rolling production technology of high-strength titanium alloy tubes in China, and the high-strength titanium alloy thin-walled tube Gr9 (TA18M in China) is still in the exploratory trial stage . At present, the domestic research and manufacture of titanium alloy tubes are mainly: China Petroleum Group Petroleum Pipe Engineering and Technology Research Institute, Baoji Titanium, Northwest Institute of Non-ferrous Metals, Western Titanium, Changzhou Farinow Great Wall Welded Pipe Co. Among them, China Petroleum Group Petroleum Pipe Engineering Research Institute has developed 110 steel grade oil pipe and casing, with specifications of Ø88.9mm×7.34mm and Ø177.0mm×9.19mm. The products have successfully passed ISO13679 Grade II evaluation test, and have been tested in China National Offshore Oil. Tensile performance: up-buckling torque 4250N-m, counterweight 60t, equivalent to 8000m well depth, test time 60min; gas tightness: water pressure 27MPa (4ksi), steady pressure; anti-sticky buckling performance: up-buckling torque 3900~4600N-m, up-buckling speed 15~25r/min, repeated up and down buckling 3 times, the test meets the field requirements. Commonly used oil pipe forming process TC4 titanium alloy ingots are mostly produced by vacuum self-consumption arc furnace 2 melting, its chemical composition are in line with GB/T3602 standard requirements , the specific data are shown in Table 2. Figure 1 shows the TC4 thick-walled pipe for oil. As the oil and gas industry requires higher quality and efficiency, titanium alloy materials have produced some research results in the field of oil and gas drilling and completion, and titanium alloy tubing is expected to be widely used in high sulfur natural gas exploration and development.
Table 2 TC4 titanium alloy chemical composition
|Form||Mass fraction of main chemical components /%||Impurity mass fraction /%|
Figure 1 TC4 thick-walled pipe for oil
Feasibility analysis of titanium alloy pipe applications
H2S contained in high sulfur gas fields is almost as toxic as potassium cyanide and is extremely chemically active , producing hydrogen bulging, hydrogen cracking, sulfide stress corrosion cracking, and stress-directed hydrogen cracking in metallic materials, which in turn leads to downhole tubing column breakage, surface manifold and instrumentation bursting, wellhead device failure, blowout, and fire accidents . The lowest grade of sulfur-resistant carbon steel, like L80, C90, T95, C75, NT80SS, AC80, and SM95SS, is often used to develop high sulfur-bearing gas fields, and 20# carbon steel is mainly used for surface gathering pipelines and equipment, while corrosion inhibitors are added to slow down electrochemical corrosion . Scholars at home and abroad are considering the replacement of sulfur-resistant carbon steel with titanium alloy materials for the development of high sulfur gas fields.
Corrosion resistance of titanium alloy oil well pipes
Shi Xuezhi et al  that the pH value is less than 4, the passivation-activation point of titanium breaks through the range of -0.7~0.3V, the activity of titanium is radicalized and the oxide film begins to dissolve; the corrosion rate increases dramatically and TiHx is generated; the pH value is greater than 12, the oxide film on the surface of titanium alloy dissolves at 70°C temperature and corrosion is accelerated; the corrosion rate of titanium alloy accelerates with the increase of temperature, but the passivation state Under the passivation state, the temperature has a tiny effect on the corrosion rate of titanium alloy, and even if the corrosion potential fluctuates at 150-200°C, the passivation film cracks or defects that appear will quickly repair themselves.
Liu Qiang et al  based on the NACE standard TM0284-200, reference GB/T8650-2006 test, titanium alloy specimens are not sensitive to H2S hydrogen cracking (HIC); according to ASTMG48-2003, reference GB/T17897 -1999 test, the results show that the titanium alloy is not sensitive to pitting corrosion; simulated 90 ℃ total pressure 15MPa, H2S partial pressure 2MPa, CO2 partial pressure 3.5MPa working conditions, the specimen corrosion before and after the mass loss of 0, the annual corrosion rate of 0mm. in H2S partial pressure 6.9MPa, CO2 partial pressure 3.4MPa, Cl- mass concentration 0.2 g/L, monomeric S mass concentration of 1 g/L, and temperatures of 177 and 218°C, there was no crevice corrosion or pitting of titanium alloy by high-temperature sulfur-containing natural gas in Mobile Bay, USA ; Xianghong Lu et al  investigated the resistance of TC4 titanium alloy tubing to uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, and SCC performance in formation water and completion fluid environments through weightless corrosion and stress corrosion cracking tests No cracks were found in the SCC tests, which proved its good SCC resistance; the uniform corrosion rate in the completion fluid CO2 corrosion environment was as high as 0.4247 mm/a, and the uniform corrosion rate in the formation water environment was only 0.0012 mm/a when the temperature reached 220°C, and there was no local corrosion on the surface.
Compatibility of titanium alloy with drilling and completion fluid
In terms of the compatibility of titanium alloys with drilling and completion fluids, the researchers conducted limited four-bend tests using only Ti-3Al-2.5V-PdNi, Ti-6Al-4V-PdNi, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo-Pd and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr, and none of the titanium alloys showed sulfide stress corrosion and crevice corrosion cracking . Further studies revealed that the addition of metallic elements such as Pd, Ni, Mo, and Ru to titanium alloys resulted in enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion, but the supporting test data were not sufficient.
Acid resistance and fracture toughness of titanium alloys
D.R. KANE et al  found that Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr titanium alloy has severe corrosion and hydrogen absorption at 25°C in the system of 12.0% v/v HCl + 3.0% v/v HF, at 120°C in the system of 15.0% v/v HCl, and at 10.0% v/v Kitayama studied the effect of Mo, Pd and Ru on the resistance of titanium alloys to HCl The effect of Mo, Pd and Ru on the corrosion resistance of titanium alloy against HCl, and the metal elements such as Mo, Pd and Ru improved the corrosion resistance of titanium alloy in acidizing solution. further research results of D.R. KANE showed that the Charpy impact work of titanium alloy is very low and there is no suitable tough-brittle transition temperature, but there is no relevant technical standard of titanium alloy oil well pipe as the basis.
Titanium alloy tubing application status
Titanium alloy oil pipe and casing
The U.S. Chevron Company used Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo manufactured Ø114mm titanium alloy oil tubing short section, the minimum yield strength of 930MPa, in the deep sour gas wells used, evaluation, but its corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and threaded connection performance evaluation method is only applicable to calculate the elastic modulus of carbon steel, not applicable to titanium alloy. Chevron prepared 145-steel grade titanium alloy hot recovery well casing of Ø245~406mm with Ti-6246, a heat-resistant and high-strength titanium alloy for the aviation industry, at the end of the 20th century, and its connection thread is APEX buckle type developed by Hanting, which has been successfully applied in more than 20 hot recovery wells at 260~290°C since 2003. Figure 2 shows the Ø406mm titanium alloy casing used in the hot recovery wells. RMI has successfully developed titanium alloy material casing, tubing and continuous tubing using the hot rotary-pressure perforated tubing rolling process, as shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5. Titanium alloy pipe size: diameter 48~610mm, maximum wall thickness 26mm, single length 12m, connected by welding method. At the same time, we also produce 1830~3050m, continuous tubes with 64mm outer diameter and 3.2mm wall thickness. The American Association of Corrosion Engineers NACE has determined that the titanium alloy oil well tubing produced by RMI is fully resistant to H2S, CO2 and Cl- corrosion below 330°C. The Gr29 titanium alloy tubing has proven in service practice in sour oil and gas wells that its corrosion resistance exceeds that of C276 nickel-based alloy and its cost is lower than that of G3 nickel-based alloy oil casing. Meanwhile, RMI has also produced titanium alloy drill pipes, titanium alloy offshore drilling spacer pipes and suspended chain risers [30-31], as shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
Figure 2 Titanium alloy casing of Ø406mm used in thermal recovery wells
Figure 3 Ø102mm titanium casing produced by RMI
Figure 4 Ø76mm titanium tubing produced by RMI
Figure 5 Ø25mm titanium continuous tubing produced by RMI
Fig. 6 Titanium spacer pipe produced by RMI
Figure 7 Titanium alloy suspended chain riser produced by RMI
Sinopec applied 634 pieces of Ø88.9mm×7.34mm TP-Ti-110TP-G2 titanium alloy tubing in May 2015 in Yuanba gas field 205-2 well under the conditions of H2S partial pressure 5.0MPa, CO2 partial pressure 11.0MPa, Cl- mass concentration 0.1g/L, singlet S mass concentration 31g/L and temperature 160°C, total 6200m with a top buckling torque of 5150N-m, using 80MPa helium thread leakage detection, and no leakage at a steady pressure of 20min .
Baotian Group upgraded and modified Ti-6Al-4V and mass-produced Ø90~Ø120mm extruded titanium alloy tubing (see Figure 8, Figure 9 and Figure 10), which was applied in Yuanba gas field with burial depth of 6800m, H2S volume fraction of 5.77% and formation temperature of 158°C. The resistance to sulfide stress was similar to or even better than that of nickel-based alloy oil tubing. China Petroleum Group Petroleum Tubing Engineering and Technology Research Institute and others developed P110 steel grade titanium alloy oil well pipe using α+β type titanium alloy, and cooperated with Canada C-Fer Center to conduct a study on the mechanism of gas sealing of special threaded joints of oil casing, and developed gas sealing special threaded titanium alloy joints from tooth design, overfill calculation and sealing structure taking into account the anti-sticky buckling performance, which were tested by China National Offshore Oil Corporation downhole. It is proved that it exceeds the requirements of API Spec5CT-2011 standard for P110 steel grade.
Figure 8 TC4 titanium alloy threads in the upper unloading test
Figure 9 Titanium alloy tubing and casing from Baotou Group undergoing downhole testing at China National Offshore Oil Corporation
Fig. 10 Titanium alloy oil pipe produced by Baotian Group
Titanium alloy drill pipe
Torch Drilling Technology Services  drilled a short radius horizontal well in Greeley County, Kansas in June 1999 using a combination of drilling tools: PDC bit + rotary guide drilling tool combination + 4 pieces of Ø73.02 mm titanium drill pipe + Ø73.02 mm PH-6 steel drill pipe, and in April and May 2000 using titanium drill pipe to drill first and A large-slope directional well was completed in three older wells in Ector County in April and May 2000 using titanium drill pipe to progressively increase the well slope from 66.5° to 89.5° over an 8.5m section.
GrantPrideco, a subsidiary of Weatherford, and Texas, a subsidiary of RTI, used Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in the early 21st century to make titanium alloy drill pipe with high strength, deflection and durability, as well as light weight and corrosion resistance, which has a yield strength of 840 MPa and a strength-to-quality ratio of 1.54 times that of S-135 steel drill pipe, while the fatigue It was successfully applied in 2000 in the drilling of several large-slope wells in Taxes State, USA .
Titanium Alloy Gas Transmission and Processing Equipment
Due to the easy bending of titanium alloy pipes, titanium welded pipes are now gradually replacing titanium seamless pipes and other pipes in many fields in countries and regions such as Japan, the United States and Europe . Because of its excellent corrosion resistance, titanium alloy tubes have been used in heat exchangers, distillation towers and reactors for petroleum refining, which significantly reduces the repair and maintenance costs of equipment and extends the service life of equipment. The United States in the early 1970s, the use of 100 titanium tubular heat exchangers using seawater as a cooling medium to cool the high-temperature steam and oil mixture pumped from the oil wells .
Prospects for titanium tubing applications
The harsh environment of high-sulfur natural gas exploration and development uses drilling tools, casing, tubing, downhole tools, surface gas gathering network and processing station equipment with exceptionally harsh service conditions. Titanium alloy is expected to be widely used in high sulfur gas exploration and development because of its ultra-high strength, high compressive strength, high extrusion resistance, acid corrosion resistance, H2S stress corrosion resistance and hydrogen damage resistance, and its ability to work in an environment where H2S, CO2 and Cl- coexist.
Application prospects of titanium alloy drilling tools
In the process of drilling and completion of exploration and development of high sulfur gas fields, Ni-based alloys are often used as drill pipes because H2S corrosion can cause downhole accidents such as brittle breakage and perforation of drilling tools. However, Ni-based alloys have the characteristics of high alloying, which makes the production process of Ni-based alloy drill pipe complicated, difficult to manufacture, and not easy to control the quality, and its high price and long production cycle , resulting in a significant increase in drilling costs. Because the two titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr, have slight crevice corrosion in the drilling completion fluid (simulated by CaCl2+CaBr2), the titanium alloys used as drilling tools can be preferentially selected as Ti-3Al-2.5V-PdNi, Ti-6Al-4V-PdNi, which are resistant to both sulfide stress cracking corrosion and drilling completion fluid corrosion . PdNi, etc. . For example, the drill pipe produced by Baoji Titanium Company from Ø90~Ø120mm rods forged with EBCHM+VAR molten titanium alloy ingots has ½ the quality of Ni-based alloy stainless steel, twice the operational flexibility and 10 times the service life of Ni-based alloy stainless steel; the Ø73.03mm(in) titanium alloy developed by China Petroleum Group Petroleum Pipe Engineering and Technology Research Institute Drill pipe has been successfully applied in China’s deep sea drilling, which shortens the drilling cycle and reduces the drilling cost in the application.
Application Prospects of Titanium Alloy Oil Casing
The development process of high sulfur gas field is basically the coexistence of H2S, CO2, corrosion process there is an obvious “competition synergy” effect , resulting in oil pipe and casing corrosion, a serious threat to the production safety of oil and gas fields, and even cause the scrapping of oil and gas wells. In addition to its excellent corrosion resistance to sulfide stress cracking, the yield strength of titanium alloy tubing is still above 760 MPa (110 ksi) at 260°C. The longitudinal and transverse mechanical properties are similar , and the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal expansion are ½ and ⅔ of those of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys, respectively, which is beneficial to the use of titanium alloy tubing and casing under different downhole conditions without exceeding their minimum yield strength conditions. Xiangdong Li  studied the use of insulated tubing down in gas wells to ensure that the temperature of natural gas rising to the wellhead is higher than the critical temperature for hydrate generation, and can allow natural gas to rely on its own temperature at the wellhead or well site after throttling and depressurization, not lower than the minimum operating temperature allowed for natural gas pipeline tubing or not lower than -20°C, turning downhole throttling into wellhead throttling with the use of tubing tubing with an outer wall of insulating layer tubing, Continuous tubing, special metal tubing, special non-metallic tubing of any one or a combination of 2 or more. Cao Junjie et al  invented the first titanium alloy tubing for thermal insulation and anti-friction oil tubing for oil wells, and it has been successfully applied on 12 oil wells.
The Petroleum Pipe Engineering Research Institute of China Petroleum Group has mastered titanium alloy surface treatment technology for anti-stick buckling, titanium alloy thread processing and testing technology, and titanium alloy material suitability evaluation method for the whole production cycle of working conditions, established a titanium alloy standard system, developed titanium alloy special thread ester , and applied titanium alloy pipe that meets the minimum yield strength condition, resists sulfide stress corrosion and has heat insulation function to in the development of high sulfur-bearing gas fields to ensure the temperature of gas transport to the wellhead, reduce the amount of inhibitors in the natural gas extraction process, save extraction costs, reduce the difficulty of inhibitor recovery and wastewater treatment, and reduce environmental pollution.
Application prospects of titanium alloy natural gas transmission and treatment equipment
The titanium alloy pipe is easy to bend and suitable for the laying of natural gas gathering network, and the single-sided welding and double-sided forming performance ensures uniform and reliable welding seam. In the 1990s , titanium alloy has been used as a drilling bulkhead on a semi-submersible floating drilling platform in the Hedwig field of the Norwegian branch of the North Sea Oilfield , reducing the mass of the whole system by 50% and thus reducing the bulkhead lifting force by 63%. 63%, eliminating the need for bulky flexible joints, reducing the system cost by 40%, and providing an expected service life of up to 25a. Titanium handling equipment has also been successfully applied in the refining industry.
- (1) Titanium alloys with high specific strength, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, high toughness, low density, wide working temperature range and good fatigue resistance have excellent longitudinal mechanical properties and are suitable for use in most acid, alkali, salt, seawater and marine corrosive environments. Titanium and titanium alloy tubes have been widely used in military industry, nuclear industry, aerospace, marine industry, petroleum refining and chemical industry, etc.
- (2) Titanium alloy has excellent corrosion resistance, acid resistance and fracture toughness, and similar longitudinal and transverse mechanical properties, and has been successfully applied in acid (containing H2S, CO2) oil and gas fields at home and abroad. Therefore, titanium alloy pipe will become a new material to replace Ni-based alloy in high sulfur oil and gas exploration and development.
- (3) Titanium alloy pipes are in the initial stage of development and application in China’s high-sulfur oil and gas fields. Titanium alloy oil pipes have not been used in high-sulfur oil and gas fields in southwest oil and gas fields and high-pressure and high-temperature wells in Tarim and northwest Sichuan. Domestic Baosteel, Tiangang, Northwest Nonferrous Research Institute and Baoti Group are actively developing titanium alloy petroleum tubing to meet the urgent demand for high strength corrosion resistant tubing for ultra-deep and ultra-high pressure oil and gas wells in China.
Authors: Gu shengqun, song huimei, Li lin, Li ji, Liu Xiangjun, Yang wensheng
Source: China Titanium Alloy Pipe Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.pipelinedubai.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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